The Effect of Using Outline Technique to Students’ Writing Ability
In the four skills of English language, there are receptive and productive skills. Writing is one of the productive skills which requires us to use our hands and our brains to produce the written symbols that represent our spoken languge. The aim of this research is to investigate whether the use of outline is effective to improve students’ writing ability. Action reseach is chosen as the research design. The focus is limited into students writing component especially content and organization and the use of outline in writing descriptive paragraph. One class of second grade is the participant of the research, since that class is the one which has a problem in developing ideas in writing process. Pre- test and post- test are used to get the data. The outline technique is given directly after getting the results of pre- test scores. The findings indicates that there is significance changes between pre- test and post- test scores where the post- test has higher scores than pre- test. It is also found that outline helps students’ writing especially in the content and organization of their essay. However, the are not improvement in other language components such as grammar and vocabulary.
G. E., Wishon, & J. M., Burks. (1980). Let's Write. English (Revised ed.). New York, U.S.A: Litton. Educational Publishing International.
Oshima, A., & Hogue, A. (2007). Introduction to Academic Writing (Third ed.). New York: Pearson Education.
Brizee, A., & Tadriff, A. (2010). Four Main Components for Effective Outlines. Purdue Online Writing Lab. Retrieved November 07, 2017, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/544/01/
Washington, U. O. (Ed.). (1997). How to Make an Outline. 685-8287. Retrieved October 20, 2017, from http://www.psych.uw.edu/psych.php#p=339
Bailey, S. (2011). Academic Writing A Handbook for International Students (Third ed.). Routledge: Taylor & Francis e-Library.
Cottrel, S. (2005). Critical Thinking Skills Developing Effective Analysis and Argument (Third ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Reinking, J.A & Hart, A.W. (1986). Strategies for Successful Writing. Addison Wesley: Publishing Company.
Kaplan, R.B. (1997). Cultural Thought Patterns in Inter-Cultural Education. Language Learning. Vol. 16 (1-2), pp, 1-20
Heaton, J.B. (1988). Writing English Language Tests. London: Longman.
Brown, H.D. (2004). Language Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practices. New York: Pearson Education.
Ary, Donalds, Jacobs, Lucy Cheser, Sorensen, Christine K., & Razavieh, Asghar. (2010). Introduction to Research in Education (Vol. 8). Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Nunan, D. (2003). Practical English Language Teaching. New York: Mc Graw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Nunan, D.(2005). Practical English Language Teaching: Young Learner. New York: Mc Graw- Hill Companies, Inc.
Oshima, A. (1991). Writing Academic English. San Francisco: Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. Costello, P. J. (2007). Action research. New York: Continuum.